Police official Mohammad Jahid said many of the workers were treated at various hospitals after the incident at East West Factory in Gazipur district.
Jahid said most of the workers suffered vomiting and stomach problems. None was life-threatening.
He said up to 4,000 workers are employed in the factory.
Earlier this month, contaminated drinking water sickened 450 workers at Starlight Sweater Factory in the same area. Authorities cleaned the reservoir and reopened the factory a day later.
Jahid said there has not been any legal action against that factory.
A building collapse near Dhaka in April killed 1,129 workers, injured many others and highlighted hazardous working conditions in the more than 4,000 garment factories in Bangladesh.
Bangladesh earns about $20 billion each year from exports of garment products, mainly to the United States and Europe, accounting for nearly 80 percent of the country's export earnings.