Are female leaders better for the world's women?
It would be nice to think that women who achieve power would want to help women at the bottom. But one continuing global drama underscores that women in power can be every bit as contemptible as men.
Sheikh Hasina, prime minister of Bangladesh, is mounting a scorched-earth offensive against Muhammad Yunus, the founder of Grameen Bank and champion of the economic empowerment of women around the world. Yunus, 72, won a Nobel Peace Prize for his pioneering work in microfinance, focused on helping women lift their families out of poverty.
Yet Hasina's government has already driven Yunus from his job as managing director of Grameen Bank. Worse, since last month, her government has tried to seize control of the bank from its 5.5 million small-time shareholders, almost all of them women, who collectively own more than 95 percent of the bank.
What a topsy-turvy picture: We see a woman who has benefited from evolving gender norms using her government powers to destroy the life's work of a man who has done as much for the world's most vulnerable women as anybody on earth.
The government has also started various investigations of Yunus and his finances and taxes, and his supporters fear that he might be arrested on some pretext or another.
"It's an insane situation," Yunus told me a few days ago at the Clinton Global Initiative in New York, sounding subdued instead of his normally exuberant self. "I just don't know how to deal with it."
If the government succeeds in turning Grameen Bank into a government bank, Yunus said, "it is finished."
Hasina, in New York for the U.N. General Assembly, initially agreed to be interviewed by me in a suite at the Grand Hyatt. At the last minute she canceled and refused to reschedule.
Perhaps none of this should be surprising. Metrics like girls' education and maternal mortality don't improve more when a nation is led by a woman. There is evidence that women matter as local leaders and on corporate boards, but that doesn't seem to have been true at the national level, at least not for the first cohort of female leaders around the world.
Bangladesh is actually a prime example of the returns from investing in women. When it separated from Pakistan in 1971, it was a wreck. But it invested in girls' education, and today more than half of its high school students are female -- an astonishing achievement for an impoverished Muslim country.
All those educated women formed the basis for Bangladesh's garment industry. They also had fewer births: The average Bangladeshi woman now has 2.2 children, down from six in 1980. Bringing women into the mainstream also seems to have soothed extremism, which is much less of a concern than in Pakistan (where female literacy in the tribal areas is only 3 percent).
To her credit, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has spoken up for Yunus: "I highly respect Muhammad Yunus, and I highly respect the work that he has done, and I am hoping to see it continue without being in any way undermined or affected by any government action," she said earlier this year. Two former secretaries of state, George Shultz and Madeleine Albright, have also called on Hasina to back off.
She shows no sign of doing so. One theory is that she is paranoid and sees Yunus as a threat, especially since he made an abortive effort to enter politics in 2007. Another theory is that she is envious of his Nobel Peace Prize and resentful of his global renown.
Hasina is disappointing in other ways. She has turned a blind eye to murders widely attributed to the security services. My New York Times colleague Jim Yardley wrote just this month about a labor leader, Aminul Islam, who had been threatened by security officers and whose tortured body was found in a pauper's grave.
Yunus fans are signing a Change.org petition on his behalf, but I'd like to see more U.S. officials and politicians speak up for him. President Barack Obama, how about another photo op with Yunus?
I still strongly believe that we need more women in leadership posts at home and around the world, from presidential palaces to corporate boards. The evidence suggests that diverse leadership leads to better decision-making, and I think future generations of female leaders may be more attentive to women's issues than the first.
In any case, this painful episode in Bangladesh is a reminder that the struggle to achieve gender equality isn't simply a battle between the sexes.
It is far more subtle. Misogyny and indifference remain obstacles for women globally, but those are values that can be absorbed and transmitted by women as well as by men.