Hall of Fame manager Tony La Russa, a key voice in Major League Baseball's new expanded replay, said the goal of the new system is to eliminate the "dramatic miss" -- a blown call that directly alters the outcome of the game. Here's how a few infamous calls might have been affected:
JIM JOYCE'S PERFECT ROBBERY
Date: June 2, 2010
The play: The only thing that prevented a perfect game by Detroit Tigers right-hander Armando Galarraga was a screw-up by the first-base umpire. With two outs in the top of the ninth inning, Jim Joyce ruled that Jason Donald of the Cleveland Indians beat out a throw to the bag from first baseman Miguel Cabrera to the pitcher covering.
In 2014: Galarraga would have his perfecto. Plays on the bases -- force plays and tag plays -- are reviewable under the new system. The lone exception is a force play involving the fielder's touching of second base on a double play.
WILD WILD-CARD ENDING
Date: Oct. 1, 2007
The play: In a one-game tiebreaker to determine the National League wild-card team, the Colorado Rockies beat the San Diego Padres in the 13th inning when Matt Holliday tagged up from third base and blasted past catcher Michael Barrett for the winning run. Home-plate umpire Tim McClelland signaled safe, but replays suggested that Holliday never touched home.
In 2014: Probably overturned. Expanded replay can review appeal plays involving whether base runners touched or missed a base.
JEFFREY MAIER'S CATCH
Date: Oct. 19, 1996. Game 1 of the American League Championship Series
The play: As Baltimore Orioles right fielder Tony Tarasco settled under a deep flyball to right field, a 12-year-old New York Yankees fan named Jeffery Maier reached over the fence to pluck himself a souvenir. Right-field umpire Rich Garcia ruled it a game-tying home run for Derek Jeter -- and the Yankees went on to win Game 1 and, eventually, the series.
In 2014: Disputed home-run calls were already automatically reviewed under existing rules put in place in 2008 and still will not need to be formally challenged.
DON DENKINGER'S GAFFE
Date: Oct. 26, 1985. Game 6 of the World Series
The play: In a play that may have turned the tide of the World Series, first-base umpire Don Denkinger signaled safe as Jorge Orta of the Kansas City Royals crossed the bag to start the bottom of the ninth inning. Replays showed that the underhand toss from first baseman Jack Clark to pitcher Todd Worrell in fact beat the runner and Orta should have been ruled out. Kansas City rallied to win in that ninth inning, then cruised 11-0 in the decisive Game 7.
In 2014: La Russa cited this play as an example of the "dramatic miss." Force plays on the bases are reviewable, and from the seventh inning on umpires can initiate a replay on their own, even if neither manager has a remaining challenge.
FROEMMING VS. PAPPAS
Date: Sept. 2, 1972
The play: Like Armando Galarraga decades later, pitcher Milt Pappas lost a perfect game amid umpire controversy. Home plate umpire Bruce Froemming ruled that Pappas' final two pitches to Larry Stahl of the San Diego Padres were balls, making Pappas the only pitcher to lose a perfect game on a walk to the 27th batter. Pappas was enraged by Froemming's calls. "How many chances do you get?'' he said later. "That was my one chance."
In 2014: No change. Balls and strikes calls are still in the hands of the umpires, and there is no plan to use technology to enforce the strike zone.
-- Daniel Brown